12th Biology Practical Manual
Component of the practical in Biology. Students are expected to follow certain. The main objective of the manual is to introduce the students of higher.
The Nat ional C ouncil o f E ducat ional Re se arch and Trainin g ( NCE RT) is the apex body concerning all aspects of refinement of School Education. It has recently developed textual material in Biology for Higher Secondary stage which is base d on the National Cu rr icul um F rame wo rk ( NCF ) –2005. The NCF reco mme nds th at chi ldr e n’s e xpe ri e nce in sch ool e ducati on mus t be li nk e d to the life outside school so that l e arni ng e xpe ri e nce is j oy ful and fi ll s th e g ap be twe e n the e xpe ri e nce at home and i n communi ty. I t r e comme nds to diffu se the sharp b oun dari e s betw e e n di ffe rent su bjects and di scour ag e s rote le arn in g.
The rec e nt de v e lopm e nt of syllabi and te xtual ma te rial is an att e mpt to implement this basic idea. The present Laboratory Manual will be com plem e ntary to the te xtbo ok of B iolog y fo r Cl ass XI I. It is in continu ation to the NCERT’s efforts to improve upon comprehension of concepts and practical skills among students. The purpose of this manual is not only to conve y the a pproach an d phi losophy of the practical cour se to stu de nts and teachers but to provide them appropriate guidance for carrying out e xpe ri me nts i n th e laboratory. The manual is su ppose d to e ncour ag e chi ldr e n to re flect o n th e ir own lea rn in g and to pur su e fur ther activities and que stion s. Of cour se the su cce ss of thi s effo rt al so de pe nds on the in iti ative s to be taken by the prin cipals and teache rs to e ncour ag e chi ldr e n to carr y out e xpe ri me nts in the laborato ry and dev e lop their th ink in g a nd n ur tur e c rea tivity. Th e methods adopted for perfor mi n g th e pr acti cal s and th eir evaluation will determine how effective this practical book will prove to make the children’s life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress and boredom.
The practical book attempts to provide space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience. It is hoped that the material provided in this manual will help students in carrying out laboratory work effectively and will encourage teachers to introduce some open-ended experiments at the school level. E xpansi on of sci e nti fic k nowledg e and conseq uently th e change in the system o f e du cati on h as l e d to th e dev elopme nt of new me thods of instructions. Today the stress is laid on the enquiry approach and discu ssi on me thod i nstead of le ctur e me thod of te achin g. B iology is now something more than observation of living organisms.
Study of Biology in clu de s micr oscopic obse rvations to rev e al min ut e in te rn al de tail s of the organism, biochemical testing to understand complex reactions taking place insi de the orga ni sms, expe ri me nts with li ve orga ni sm to u nderstand various physiological processes and even much more. In other words e xpe ri me nts i n B iology tru ly repre sents an interdi scipl in ary approach of learning. The new syllabus of Bi olog y has be e n de signe d to cate r to the nee ds of pupil who are desirous of pursuing science further. The fundamental objective of this course is to develop scientific attitude and desired laborato ry ski lls req ui red f or pur sui ng Biolog y as a discipli ne a t thi s lev e l. A simi lar approach has bee n taken whil e formulatin g the practica l syll abus of Biology for higher secondary stage.
The practical syllabus includes content based experiments, which help in comprehension of the concepts. There are altog e ther twe nty-fi ve e xe rci ses in th e prese nt manu al whi ch are base d on Bi olog y c ur ri culu m fo r C lass XI I. F or e ach practical wo rk, pri nci ple, re quir e me nts, pr oce dur e, precautions, observ ations, di scuss ion and th e question s ar e give n i n th e book.
T he me th odolog y of pr e parat ion of any reagent, if required, has been given alongwith the requirements, for th e conve ni e nce of students an d teac hers. Th e questions are aime d to de ve lop l e arn e r’s u nderst andi ng of the related probl e ms. H owe ve r, te acher may prov ide help in case the problem is fou nd to be be yond the capabili ty of the le arn e r. Precautions must be w e ll un de rstood by the le arn e rs be fore proceeding with the experiments and projects. 150cc Go Kart Manual.
In addition to the core e xpe ri me nts e nli ste d i n the sy ll abus for Cl ass X II e mphasis has als o be e n given for pursuing Investigation Project Work. It is expected that these informations will motivate the students to take up independent project work on topics of their i ntere st. Appropriate appendices related to the observation and study of organisms ar e g ive n al ong w ith the e xpe ri me nt. I nternati onal s ymbo ls for units, hazards and hazard warnings are given at appropriate places in the bo ok. I t is e xpe cte d that th is will make the learne rs more care ful about the e nvir onme nt an d make them careful whi le de ali ng with th e e qui pme nts and chemicals in the laborato ry.
Experimentation is inevitable part of actualizing theories. To inculcate the mathematical aptitude, habit of experimentation and self learning, CBSE conducts Practical Exams along with theoretical exams. CBSE Class 12 th, Biology Lab Manual has been prepared strictly according to CBSE guidelines. All the experiments in this manual have been given in simple, lucid and interactive manner. The theory given with each Experiment is a very special feature of this lab manual. It gives complete understanding of each term concept and Definition, etc.
So that the students need not to refer their textbooks or any other book. Viva-Voce questions are given with each experiment test students’ understanding of related experiments. The book serves as the step by step guide for conducting experiments explaining the relevance of each step with accurate diagrams, observations and calculations with each experiment.
Experimentation is inevitable part of actualizing theories. To inculcate the mathematical aptitude, habit of experimentation and self learning, CBSE conducts Practical Exams along with theoretical exams.
CBSE Class 12 th, Biology Lab Manual has been prepared strictly according to CBSE guidelines. All the experiments in this manual have been given in simple, lucid and interactive manner. The theory given with each Experiment is a very special feature of this lab manual. It gives complete understanding of each term concept and Definition, etc. So that the students need not to refer their textbooks or any other book. Viva-Voce questions are given with each experiment test students’ understanding of related experiments.
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